How Long After Exposure to COVID-19 Should You Get Tested?

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If you’ve been exposed to COVID-19, it's important to get tested within 5 days. This is recommended even if you do not have symptoms.

Medically reviewed by Meredith Goodwin, MD, FAAFPWritten by Kirsten Nunez on March 11, 2022

If you’ve been exposed to someone with COVID-19, it’s important to get tested soon after you had contact with them. It’s the only way to know for sure if you’ve contracted the virus.

If you don’t get tested, you can transmit the virus to other people without knowing it. That’s because the coronavirus can be passed on before you notice any symptoms. In other cases, you might not develop symptoms at all.

If you have been exposed to someone who has COVID-19, the precautions you need to take will depend on whether you’re up to date on your COVID-19 vaccinations.

Being up to date means you’ve had all the recommended COVID-19 vaccines and a booster shot.

It’s also important to get tested if you’ve:

  • attended a crowded event, like a concert
  • traveled
  • developed COVID-19 symptoms

It’s crucial to note that the coronavirus may not cause symptoms in some people. You should still get tested 5 days after an exposure, even if you have no symptoms.

After an exposure, experts recommend that you take an at-home test.

An at-home test is a type of rapid antigen test, also called a rapid diagnostic test. It checks nasal swab samples for proteins in the coronavirus.

Before using an at-home test, it’s helpful to blow your nose. Having too much mucus in your nose can dilute the sample and increase the risk of a false negative result.

You can perform this test anywhere, so it’s very convenient. It also provides results in about 15 minutes.

A rapid at-home test is also known as a:

  • over-the-counter test
  • self-test
  • home test

You can find at-home tests at:

  • pharmacies
  • local health departments
  • community organizations, like libraries

In general, at-home tests are less accurate than other COVID-19 tests. The accuracy also differs depending on whether you test positive or negative.

An at-home test is most accurate when you have an active infection. So, positive results from a home test are highly accurate. But if your results are negative, it doesn’t necessarily mean you don’t have COVID-19.

Other types of COVID-19 tests you can take include:

  • Rapid lab testing. A rapid test can also be done at a testing site, where a lab technician checks your samples. This type of test typically provides results within several minutes or hours.
  • PCR test. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test is more accurate than a rapid test. It checks for the genetic material of the virus.

Even if you have no symptoms, it’s important to take the following steps if you test positive for COVID-19:

  • Notify people you have recently interacted with or been around.
  • Isolate and stay home for at least 5 days after you test positive.
  • Wear a mask if you need to be around other people in your home.
  • Use a separate bathroom from other people in your home, if possible.
  • Sleep in a room separate from other people.
  • Get another rapid test at the end of your 5-day isolation period.

You can end your isolation after 5 days if:

  • you test negative
  • you haven’t had a fever for 24 hours and haven’t used medication to lower your fever AND
  • your other symptoms have also improved

If, after 5 days, you still have symptoms or test positive, you’ll need to continue isolation until day 10.

It’s recommended to follow these guidelines even if you have no symptoms. That’s because COVID-19 can be transmitted by people who have no COVID-19 symptoms.

A negative test means that levels of the virus aren’t high enough to be detected at this point in time. It doesn’t necessarily mean you don’t have the virus.

To be safe and confident that you haven’t contracted the virus, here’s what to do:

  • Regardless of your vaccination status, wear a mask around other people, even at home.
  • Wear a mask until you can test yourself again.
  • Test yourself again 1 or 2 days after your negative test.

If you test negative again, you can end your quarantine. This only applies to people who aren’t up to date on their vaccinations. You don’t need to quarantine after potential COVID-19 exposure if you’re fully vaccinated and boosted.

Testing negative multiple times is the best way to confirm that you do not have COVID-19.

COVID-19 symptoms can vary widely from one person to the next. Some people may have very mild symptoms or no symptoms at all.

In general, COVID-19 symptoms start 1 to 14 days after exposure. The average time frame is around 5 days.

If you do have COVID-19, the virus is most likely to be transmitted 1 to 2 days before your symptoms start, or 2 to 3 days after your symptoms begin.

The coronavirus can still spread up to 10 days after you contract it.

If you have a moderately or severely compromised immune system, the virus may be able to spread for up to 20 days.

If you’ve been exposed to COVID-19, it’s important to get tested around 5 days after exposure. This is recommended even if you do not have symptoms.

You can take a rapid at-home test. If it’s positive, let your close contacts know and isolate for 5 days after taking the test.

If the test is negative, you’ll want to confirm the negative results. Regardless of your vaccination status, test yourself again 1 or 2 days later. Wear a mask around other people until you know for sure that you haven’t contracted the coronavirus.

It’s also a good idea to test yourself if you have COVID-19 symptoms. Similarly, if you’ve traveled or attended a crowded event, consider getting tested, even if you don’t have symptoms.

Last medically reviewed on March 11, 2022

What Is Tamari? All You Need to Know

25-11-2019 · Tamari is a type of soy sauce that’s usually gluten-free. Its umami flavor helps enhance many dishes, such as stir-fries, tofu, soups, and rice- or …


Written by Katey Davidson, MScFN, RD, CPT on November 25, 2019Medically reviewed by Adda Bjarnadottir, MS, RDN (Ice)

  • What it is
  • Tamari vs. soy sauce
  • Uses
  • Bottom line

We include products we think are useful for our readers. If you buy through links on this page, we may earn a small commission. Here’s our process.

Tamari, also known as tamari shoyu, is a popular sauce used in Japanese cuisine.

It has gained popularity worldwide for its rich flavor — and because it’s vegan and usually gluten-free.

Yet, you may wonder what tamari is made from and how to best use it.

This article explains everything you need to know about tamari, including how it differs from soy sauce and how you can add it to your dishes.

sushi on a plate with tamariShare on Pinterest

Tamari is one of five popular types of Japanese soy sauces known as shoyu. Shoyu is made by fermenting soybeans — and sometimes wheat — using a special fungus (koji) and brine (moromi) (1).

The other types of shoyu are koikuchi, shiro, usukuchi, and sai-shikomi. Each differs based on its fermentation process, thickness, flavor, and wheat content (1, 2).

Compared with most soy sauces, tamari is darker, contains little to no wheat, and has a stronger umami flavor (1, 3).

Umami is a Japanese term for “pleasant savory taste” and refers to the unique flavor of three amino acids found in plant and animal proteins. Common umami foods include kimchi, seaweed, soy products, and some aged meats and cheeses (4).

Although some varieties contain small amounts of wheat, most tamari is wheat-free, gluten-free, and vegan (1, 3).

Other soy sauces typically contain high amounts of wheat, making them unsuitable for people who avoid gluten. Furthermore, they’re usually much lighter in color and sweeter (1, 3).

The most popular type of soy sauce in North America is Chinese soy sauce, which is saltier than tamari. Furthermore, it isn’t gluten-free (5).

Thus, tamari is your best option for a gluten-free soy sauce.


Tamari is a Japanese soy sauce made by fermenting soybeans and usually gluten-free. Compared with most soy sauces, it’s darker, less salty, and has a strong umami flavor.

Technically, tamari is a type of soy sauce. However, it differs from traditional soy sauce due to its processing.

Traditional soy sauce is made using four main ingredients — soybeans, water, salt, and wheat. These ingredients are fermented for several months using koji and moromi. Finally, the mixture is pressed to extract its liquid (5).

In comparison, tamari is usually produced as a byproduct of miso paste, which is made from soybeans, salt, water, koji, and moromi. It also undergoes fermentation, but unlike traditional soy sauce, little to no wheat is added (1).

Traditional soy sauce has a soybean-to-wheat ratio of 1:1, while tamari has little, if any, of this grain. As a result, tamari has a stronger umami taste due to its high soybean content, whereas soy sauce is sweeter as a result of its added wheat (6).


Traditional soy sauce is made using a 1:1 ratio of soybeans to wheat. Comparatively, tamari is usually a byproduct of miso paste, which contains mostly soybeans and little to no wheat.

Tamari is commonly added to stir-fries, soups, sauces, or marinades.

It can also be used as a flavor enhancer for tofu, sushi, dumplings, noodles, and rice. Its mild and less salty taste makes it a good dip.

It can replace any type of soy sauce in most recipes, and its umami flavor lends itself to vegetarian and vegan meals by adding a savory bite usually associated with meat-based dishes.

You can purchase tamari online and in most grocery stores. Be sure to look for a gluten-free label if you avoid gluten — or check the ingredient list to make sure it doesn’t contain wheat.


Tamari is very versatile and can replace most soy sauces. It’s usually used as a dip or added to stir-fries, soups, and sauces.

Tamari is a type of soy sauce that’s usually gluten-free.

Its umami flavor helps enhance many dishes, such as stir-fries, tofu, soups, and rice- or noodle-based meals.

If you’re looking for a gluten-free alternative to soy sauce or simply want to switch things up, give this unique sauce a try.

Just be sure to check the label to make sure your product is gluten-free.

Last medically reviewed on November 25, 2019

Am I Nonbinary? 12 Things to Know If You’re Questioning Your …

26-02-2021 · Nonbinary is both an umbrella term encompassing many gender identities and a singular gender identity label. As a singular gender identity, nonbinary describes genders that …


Humans throughout history have observed patterns among our species (and others) to more easily group and distinguish between similar and different traits.

These groupings are often binary in nature, meaning that they relate to or involve two things. Sometimes, these two things are positioned as mutually exclusive or in opposition to one another.

An example of these socially constructed and systematically reinforced groupings are the seemingly dominant gender categories of man and woman.

There have always been people whose existence and lived experiences don’t fit neatly into these gender categories, regardless of whether history books and other institutional recognize it.

Here’s what you need to know.

Nonbinary is both an umbrella term encompassing many gender identities and a singular gender identity label.

As a singular gender identity, nonbinary describes genders that exist outside of the binary, or that can’t be described as exclusively woman or man.

It’s important to note that nonbinary is a gender identity, not a form of gender expression.

The term “nonbinary” tells you something about who a person is — not about what they might look like.

Nonbinary people can have presentations and expressions that are:

  • gender conforming
  • gender nonconforming
  • masculine
  • feminine
  • androgynous
  • fluid

There isn’t one specific way to be, look, or act nonbinary.

Nonbinary identity provides a framework for understanding and celebrating nuanced and complex experiences of gender that aren’t rooted in assigned sex or fall outside of binary gender traits, expectations, norms, and stereotypes.

Although the term nonbinary has become more commonly used in the past decade, nonbinary identities and nonbinary people have been around for centuries.

Nonbinary gender has been recorded as far back as 400 B.C. to 200 A.D. when hijras — people in India who identified as having both masculine and feminine traits — were referenced in ancient Hindu texts.

Early documentation of nonbinary genders is more commonly found in Indigenous and non-Western cultures, some of which use trigender and polygender systems for categorizing and understanding people’s genders.

European colonizers forced a white-centered binary construction of sex-based gender identity and expression onto Indigenous people in a violent attempt to invalidate their lived experiences.

Another motivator? To erase this vital and rich part of cultural history that teaches that nonbinary genders are naturally occurring and should be celebrated.

Binary gender has been used to oppress communities and cultures across time.

Terminology such as “Two-Spirit” — which falls under the nonbinary umbrella and should only be claimed by Indigenous people — gives Indigenous communities a way to revive histories and affirm their cultural roles and identities outside of the white Eurocentric notions of woman and man.

There are many more labels that fall within the nonbinary umbrella, and not all of them are culture-specific.

This quickly expanding set of vocabulary provides many people with the opportunity to locate and validate their personal and cultural experience of gender while communicating it to others.

Gender roles are the behaviors, presentations, stereotypes, acceptable traits, and norms society ascribes to someone based on their perceived or assigned sex or gender.

A nonbinary framework for understanding gender is founded on the notion that sex-based labels assigned at birth (such as male, female, girl, or boy) don’t determine your:

  • interests
  • mannerisms
  • behavior
  • self-expression
  • core sense of self

Many people who are nonbinary reject gender roles and the rigid expectations and perceptions attached to them.

Anyone whose gender identity or experience can’t be exclusively captured by using the terms “man” or “woman” can identify as nonbinary.

Although nonbinary people can personally self-define this term with slight variation, it’s most often used to describe experiences that:

  • encompass both masculine and feminine traits
  • don’t align with the sex-based and gender-based attributes imposed at birth

In practice, being nonbinary looks like having a core sense of self that can’t be exclusively described as man or woman and using language that respects and sees your personhood first and foremost.

Some nonbinary people feel that gender-neutral language is more affirming of their gender, while others use both gender-neutral and binary language to describe and affirm who they are.

One person who’s nonbinary might need access to a gender-neutral restroom, while another nonbinary person might prefer to use a sex-segregated space based on safety, convenience, access, and comfort.

As mentioned before, there isn’t one way or a right way to be nonbinary. Being nonbinary is about knowing yourself and doing what’s right for you.

The gender identity label a person uses to describe themself doesn’t necessarily tell you what pronouns to use.

Here’s a list (in no particular order) of pronouns nonbinary people commonly use:

  • gender-neutral pronouns, such as they/them/theirs
  • neo pronouns, such as ze/hir/hirs or ze/zir/zirs
  • binary pronouns, such as she/her/hers and he/him/his
  • multiple sets of pronouns, such as she/they or he/they
  • any pronouns, so long as they’re used respectfully

Some nonbinary people don’t use any pronouns at all. Some feel most affirmed and respected when only being referred to as their name.

No matter your gender identity, it can be a good idea to introduce yourself to others with your name and pronouns. This may prompt others to share theirs.

If someone doesn’t share their pronouns freely, you should respect their decision and avoid pressing the subject further.

If you’re unsure of what terminology to use in a given situation, deferring to gender-neutral language is typically (though not always) experienced as an inclusive effort.

The umbrella term nonbinary includes gender identities such as genderqueer and genderfluid, which results in some overlap and similarities among the terms.

“Genderqueer” can refer to both gender nonconforming identity and gender expression.

Unlike nonbinary, both the word itself and associated identity are centered around being queer.

“Genderfluid” can also refer to gender identity or expression.

It often involves the experience of moving between genders or having a gender or presentation that changes over a particular period of time.

For example, a person’s gender identity or expression can change from moment to moment, day to day, month to month, year to year, or decade to decade.

Unlike nonbinary, gender fluid conveys specific information about the evolving nature of gender over time.

Someone might opt to use the term nonbinary over others because it has become more recognizable (and Google-able) than many of the more specific gender identities under the umbrella.

As a result, using this term might be a clear and effective way of communicating something about a core part of oneself that’s complex, nuanced, and sometimes hard to explain.

Nonbinary gender might be for you if you:

  • resonate with any of the above
  • experience your gender as both masculine and feminine
  • don’t identify with the sex-based categories or gender expectations assigned to you

Nonbinary gender provides people with a space to explore and actualize an identity and expression in a way that feels aligned with their core sense of self.

Sometimes people identify with the term nonbinary in the longer term, while others identify with it for a period of time in the process of exploring or understanding their gender with greater clarity.

If you feel like this term no longer fits, it probably means you gained some helpful information about yourself along the way.

Figuring out why these shifts occur can be both challenging and anxiety-provoking.

Most often, finding the answer involves reflection about:

  • your sense of self
  • what gender means to you
  • how gender relates to your entire personhood
  • how gender relates to your experience in your body
  • how gender relates to your experience in the world

If you know someone who’s exploring their gender or who identifies as nonbinary, you can support them by checking in to find out the ways they want you to be supportive while simultaneously respecting and protecting their boundaries, right to time, and privacy.

Remember, some people are more comfortable sharing than others. Not everyone wants to speak openly about their gender and pronouns upon request.

People typically share when they’re ready and will let you know if they want you to inform or correct others.

In the meantime, there are lots of other ways to show up as an ally. For more on this, check out “10 Ways to Step Up As An Ally to Non-binary People.”

If you want to learn more about gender, there are many online resources out there. For example:

You can also check out our list of 64 different terms to describe gender identity and expression.

If you want to learn more about nonbinary gender, specifically, check out the following articles:

Mere Abrams is a researcher, writer, educator, consultant, and licensed clinical social worker who reaches a worldwide audience through public speaking, publications, social media (@meretheir), and gender therapy and support services practice Mere uses their personal experience and diverse professional background to support individuals exploring gender and help institutions, organizations, and businesses to increase gender literacy and identify opportunities to demonstrate gender inclusion in products, services, programs, projects, and content.

What Is PiYo? Exercises, Instructions, and Benefits

20-12-2019 · PiYo cross. This is one of the classic PiYo moves that warms up your core and legs. It also boosts your heart rate, loosens your hips, and alleviates upper body tension. …

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PiYo is an 8-week fitness plan from Beachbody that combines the strengthening benefits of Pilates with the flexibility enhancing effects of yoga.

Set to music, this dynamic, energetic program was designed by trainer Chalene Johnson to provide a full-body workout without straining your body.

PiYo is a low-impact exercise that doesn’t involve jumping, which lowers your risk of soft-tissue injuries such as sprains, strains, and bruises.

This program is for you if you’re looking for a movement-based way to shape your body by building muscle tone and reducing fat. It’s easy to do at home since the moves don’t require equipment or weights.

Here are a few PiYo moves to get a feel for the training. You can do these exercises on their own or as part of a circuit that you repeat one to four times.

Downward-Facing Dog plank flow

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The ease of this pose is the perfect introduction to PiYo.

  1. Start in a plank position.
  2. Press into your hands as you raise your hips and drop your heels toward the floor.
  3. Pause in this position, flowing back to the starting position.
  4. Do 8 to 12 repetitions.

PiYo cross

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This is one of the classic PiYo moves that warms up your core and legs. It also boosts your heart rate, loosens your hips, and alleviates upper body tension.

  1. Stand with your feet slightly wider than your hips.
  2. Angle your toes to face outward with a slight bend in your knees.
  3. Extend your arms to the side, bending your elbows and extending your spine as you draw your shoulder blades together. This is the starting position.
  4. Squat down as you bend forward with your upper body, rounding your spine.
  5. Arc your arms overhead and cross your wrists to reach your hands between your legs.
  6. Reverse this movement to return to the starting position.
  7. Immediately lower into a squat, fold forward, and continue the fluid movement.
  8. Continue for 30 seconds.

Static beast

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  1. Begin on all fours in a tabletop position.
  2. Raise on to your toes, lifting your knees a few inches off the floor.
  3. Engage your core as you hold this position for 1 minute.

Runner’s pose

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  1. Stand on your right leg with your left foot raised off the floor.
  2. Bend your arms with your right arm forward and left arm back.
  3. Keep your left knee bent as you tilt forward, pressing your leg behind you, and switch the position of your arms.
  4. Float your knee forward, bringing it as high as your waist to return to the starting position.
  5. Do 8 to 16 repetitions.
  6. Repeat on the opposite side.

Moving warrior

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  1. Stand in a wide-legged stance with your left toes facing forward and your right toes turning out at a slight angle.
  2. Square your hips to face forward as you extend your arms overhead with your palms facing inward. This is the starting position.
  3. Bend your left knee at a 90-degree angle so it’s right above your ankle.
  4. Lower your arms to shoulder level, with your left arm extending forward and your right arm extending behind you.
  5. Straighten your left leg and raise your arms overhead.
  6. Bend your left knee again.
  7. Lower your arms to shoulder level and extend out to both sides.
  8. Return to the starting position. This is 1 repetition.
  9. Do 8 to 12 repetitions.
  10. Repeat on the opposite side.

Practicing PiYo arms you with a variety of benefits that can improve your overall well-being and enhance your fitness level. One of the main benefits of strength and flexibility is that you’ll have less of a chance of injury.

PiYo helps to develop a strong core, which is essential in improving coordination, balance, and posture. The moves put less pressure on your joints, which helps to prevent aches and pains that often come with high-impact training.

It’s ideal for people with limited mobility since it builds muscle strength, increases flexibility, and improves your range of motion. This enhances your athletic performance and adds ease to your everyday movements.

PiYo may also help to:

  • reduce body fat
  • burn calories
  • increase stamina
  • correct muscular imbalances
  • improve body awareness
  • increase heart rate
  • increase blood flow
  • reduce stress
  • boost confidence
  • improve mental outlook

During a PiYo session, you’ll move through powerful, flowing sequences. These target your whole body, building lean muscle mass and flexibility.

Having a strong core will help your posture, coordination, and stability. As you develop endurance, strength, and mobility, you’ll find that it’s easier to perform certain movements and go deeper during stretches and other types of exercise.

Take care and pay attention to your body during each move, modifying as needed. You can progress at your own pace. The intensity of the workouts means that you’ll see and feel results faster than milder forms of exercise, especially if you stick to the program and do the workouts 6 days per week.

It may take up to 60 days for the full results to develop.

The PiYo Get Lean Eating Plan helps you to meet your weight loss and health goals while giving you the energy to fuel your workouts. After calculating your calorie level, you can choose one of the four plans that will help you meet your calorie target.

You’ll choose from food lists to create a diet that’s made up of 40 percent carbs, 35 percent protein, and 25 percent fat with guidance on what types of food can help form this ratio.

As with any exercise, the chance of injury during a PiYo workout is possible, especially if you’re new to fitness or have any injuries or medical concerns.

If this applies to you, talk to your doctor before starting a PiYo routine. Consider working one-on-one with a personal trainer so you can learn the moves correctly.

Listen to your body and choose modifications if you experience any discomfort, pain, or lack of mobility. Break down the poses slowly so you can learn the correct form. This allows time to develop awareness during the moves before doing them at a fast pace.

If you’re on the hunt for a new workout, you may want to give PiYo a try, especially if you’re already a fan of Pilates and yoga. You may find it’s the best of both worlds, allowing you to dive deeper into your practice.

Tailor your program to accommodate your individual needs, goals, and body. To ensure safety, perfect your form before moving on to the more complicated moves. Modify any pose that causes pain or discomfort.

Avoid pushing yourself too hard or too fast. At the same time, PiYo can be the challenge that helps you train to your full potential. To see the best results, stay consistent and above all, have fun and enjoy yourself.

Pycnogenol: Skin, ADHD, Other Uses, Side Effects

24-01-2018 · Pycnogenol is the registered trademark brand name of French maritime pine bark extract. It’s used as a natural supplement for several …


What is Pycnogenol?

Pycnogenol is the registered trademark brand name of French maritime pine bark extract. It’s used as a natural supplement for several conditions, including dry skin and ADHD.

Pine bark extract contains active ingredients that can also be found in peanut skin, grape seed, and witch hazel bark.

Pine bark extract provides many benefits to the skin, including reducing the signs of aging.

A small 2012 study on postmenopausal women found that pine bark extract improved hydration and elasticity of skin. Study participants took pine bark extract as a supplement, and it was found to be most effective in women who started out with dry skin. The researchers concluded that pine bark extract may increase production of hyaluronic acid and collagen, which are both found in many popular antiaging products.

A 2004 animal study also found that applying a gel containing pine bark extract sped up the wound-healing process. It also reduced the size of scars.

A 2017 review reported on the many benefits of using pine bark extract to reduce the effects of aging on skin. Pine bark extract appears to reduce the creation of free radicals, which are molecules linked to several skin conditions. It also seems to help with cell regeneration and replication.

This review noted that pine bark extract may also help with:

  • reducing wrinkles from UVB rays
  • decreasing skin thickness
  • reducing skin roughness
  • improving visible signs of aging
  • protecting from UV rays
  • preventing inflammation
  • reducing redness
  • decreasing melasma areas
  • reducing discoloration
  • preventing photoaging
  • protecting against skin cancer

In addition to its skin-healing properties, pine bark extract also shows promise for helping children manage ADHD symptoms. A 2006 study found that children who took a daily pine bark extract supplement for four weeks had significantly lower levels of hyperactivity. It also appeared to improve their attention span, visual motor skills, and concentration. The study participants’ symptoms started to return a month after they stopped taking pine bark extract.

Another 2006 study examined the effects of the antioxidant activity of pine bark extract on oxidative stress, which is thought to be one of the nongenetic factors contributing to ADHD. Children who took a pine bark extract supplement for one month had healthy antioxidant levels. While these results are promising, there isn’t enough research to fully understand the effect of antioxidant levels on ADHD symptoms.

There are also several other natural ADHD remedies you can try.

The results of a 2013 animal study suggest that pine bark extract may help to reduce damage to nerve cells following a traumatic brain injury. This is thought to be due to pine bark extract’s ability to reduce oxidative stress and inflammation. Still, more research is needed to better understand these findings and pine bark extract’s role in reducing damage from head trauma.

Improves heart health

A small 2017 study examined the effects of pine bark extract in treating cardiovascular risk factors associated with menopause. Perimenopausal women who took pine bark extract for eight weeks noticed decreased cholesterol and triglyceride levels. High levels of both of these are considered risk factors for heart disease. They also had normalized fasting glucose levels and blood pressure, which can also reduce a person’s risk of heart problems. However, this was a relatively small study, so larger ones are needed to fully understand pine bark extract’s role in these findings.

Treats metabolic syndrome

A 2015 review indicates that pine bark extract can be used to treat metabolic syndrome and related disorders such as obesity, diabetes, and high blood pressure. The review found evidence that pine bark extract may:

  • reduce blood sugar levels in people with diabetes
  • lower blood pressure
  • reduce waist size
  • improve kidney function

Similar to its neuroprotective benefits, the metabolic benefits of pine bark extract seem to be related to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

Pine bark extract is usually taken by mouth in capsule form. However, it can also be used topically. Regardless of what you’re using it for, it’s best to start with the lowest possible dose. You can gradually increase how much you take once you get a better idea of how your body reacts to it.

According to the National Institutes of Health, it’s safe for adults to take 50 to 450 milligrams of pine bark extract daily for up to one year. As a skin cream, it’s safe to use for about seven days. As a skin powder, however, you can use it safely for up to six weeks.

There haven’t been enough studies yet to change practice protocols for treating children. Work with your pediatrician to see if there are contraindications for each child. While pine bark extract is thought to be safe for children, they should only take it for a few weeks at a time. After taking a break for one to two weeks, they can start taking it again for several weeks. For children with ADHD, research suggests that symptoms start to return after about a month without taking maritime pine, so taking periodic breaks shouldn’t make it any less effective. There haven’t been any studies looking at long-term liver damage.

You can refer to the National Institutes of Health’s dosage guidelines for specific conditions. If possible, try to get pine bark extract from a local supplier, such as a health food store. The staff there can often answer any questions you have and give you more information about specific brands.

For most people, pine bark extract doesn’t cause any side effects. However, it’s always a good idea to start with a low dose so you can monitor how your body responds.

Possible side effects include:

  • dizziness
  • vertigo
  • fatigue
  • gastrointestinal issues
  • nausea
  • irritability
  • headache
  • drowsiness
  • mouth ulcers
  • skin irritation
  • lower blood sugar levels
  • urinary issues

You should also avoid using pine bark extract without talking to your doctor first if you:

  • are pregnant or breastfeeding
  • have an autoimmune condition
  • have a bleeding condition
  • have diabetes
  • are within two weeks of a scheduled surgery
  • have liver issues
  • have a heart condition

You should also do additional research or talk to your doctor before taking pine bark extract if you also take:

  • immunosuppressants
  • chemotherapy drugs
  • diabetes medications
  • medications, herbs, and supplements that affect the blood or clotting

While pine bark extract is a natural supplement, it can have powerful effects on your health, both positive and negative. Start with a low dose so you can be sure it doesn’t cause any side effects. Also, be sure to talk with your doctor first if you have an underlying medical condition or take other medications.

Bryonia: Purported Benefits and Potential Side Effects

17-01-2020 · Bryonia is a gourd plant family with 12 different species. Bryonia alba, or white bryony, is the species that many associate with homeopathic tonics. The plant is native to eastern and central ...

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Bryonia, also called bryony, is a plant-based homeopathic remedy that’s been used to relieve constipation, upset stomach, and fluid retention. It’s also been used to treat chronic conditions such as arthritis, cancer, and liver disease.

While people swear by bryonia, there’s not a lot of clinical research to back up their claims. In fact, there’s reason to believe that most people would be better off avoiding bryonia.

This article will cover the science behind bryonia and the potential risks and side effects of taking it.

Bryonia is a gourd plant family with 12 different species. Bryonia alba, or white bryony, is the species that many associate with homeopathic tonics.

The plant is native to eastern and central Europe, particularly the Scandinavian and Balkan regions. Its white flowers turn to poisonous red berries during the summer.

The thick root of the bryonia plant contains a resin-like substance that’s used in holistic remedies. The extract can be ground into a powder or distilled into gel capsules for oral consumption.

The bryonia root’s extract has been used in folk medicine for thousands of years. However, as one review of its history notes, bryonia is less popular as a medicinal remedy today than it once was, and its value as a medicinal plant seems to be declining.

People who use bryonia as a home remedy claim that its natural plant properties provide a specific set of health benefits.

Can relieve constipation

Bryonia is an emetic. That means that taking it orally can induce vomiting. It’s also a diuretic, meaning it can increase urination. This is why some people take bryonia for relief of constipation, an upset stomach, or fluid retention.

May be anti-inflammatory

Bryonia root may also have anti-inflammatory effects. For this reason, many people take it to relieve joint pain, and as a general analgesic. You’ll find bryonia on the list of ingredients for several popular homeopathic arthritis formulas.

People also use bryonia as a headache remedy, believing that it can dilate blood vessels that constrict and cause migraine attacks and headaches.

But the research on using bryonia for this purpose is conflicting, at best. A 2010 clinical trial using bryonia and arnica extracts did not find that the extracts had an effect on inflammation and bleeding after heart surgery.

May have anticancer properties

The unique compounds in bryonia might have potential as an alternative cancer treatment. At least one older study has shown that extracts from bryonia root have anti-tumor properties, meaning that it might slow the spread of cancer cells.

As recently as 2017, bryonia was demonstrated to have a toxic effect on two cancer lines — head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and cervix adenocarcinoma — in an in vitro study. This theory has yet to be clinically tested in human trials.

Large doses of bryonia can make you very sick. Taking bryonia in any dose can cause:

  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • fatigue
  • shortness of breath
  • dizziness
  • loose stool
  • excessive urination

The berries of the bryonia plant are poisonous and should never be consumed.

If you’re pregnant

If you’re pregnant or breastfeeding, talk to a doctor before you take bryonia orally for any reason.

As with any homeopathic remedy, it’s wise to talk to a doctor before you start using bryonia as a treatment for any health condition.

Keep in mind that bryonia can’t be used as a substitute for any prescription medication. If you’re looking to make a change to your treatment regimen, discuss it with your doctor before making the switch.

Bryonia may have some diuretic, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer properties. However, if you’re looking for a homeopathic remedy to treat an upset stomach or a liver condition, there are many powerful plant-based options available that have fewer risks of side effects.

There’s not a lot of conclusive evidence about how bryonia treats cancer in humans, and whether or not it’s an effective pain reliever for joint inflammation.

Speak to a doctor before you start taking bryonia. Ask them about alternatives to bryonia for the conditions that you’re looking to treat. Don’t ever take bryonia as a substitute for medication that has been prescribed to you by a doctor.

Hypogammaglobulinemia: Symptoms, Life Expectancy, …

20-02-2018 · Babies with hypogammaglobulinemia often get respiratory tract infections, food allergies, and eczema. Infants can also develop urinary tract and intestinal infections. Babies …



Hypogammaglobulinemia is a problem with the immune system that prevents it from making enough antibodies called immunoglobulins. Antibodies are proteins that help your body recognize and fight off foreign invaders like bacteria, viruses, and fungi.

Without enough antibodies, you’re more likely to get infections. People with hypogammaglobulinemia can more easily catch pneumonia, meningitis, and other infections that a healthy immune system would normally protect against. These infections can damage organs and lead to potentially serious complications.

People with this condition get more frequent infections than usual. Common infections include:

  • bronchitis
  • ear infections
  • meningitis
  • pneumonia
  • sinus infections
  • skin infections

Some of these infections can be serious.

Babies with hypogammaglobulinemia often get respiratory tract infections, food allergies, and eczema. Infants can also develop urinary tract and intestinal infections.

Babies that are born with THI first show symptoms about 6 to 12 months after birth. The main symptom is frequent ear, sinus, and lung infections.

Which symptoms you or your child has will depend on what infections you get, but they can include:

  • coughing
  • sore throat
  • fever
  • ear pain
  • congestion
  • sinus pain
  • diarrhea
  • nausea and vomiting
  • abdominal cramps
  • joint pain

Several gene changes (mutations) have been linked to hypogammaglobulinemia.

One such mutation affects the BTK gene. This gene is needed to help B cells grow and mature. B cells are a type of immune cell that makes antibodies. Immature B cells don’t make enough antibodies to protect the body from infection.

THI is more common in premature infants. Babies normally get antibodies from their mother through the placenta during pregnancy. These antibodies protect them from infections once they’re born. Babies that are born too early don’t get enough antibodies from their mother.

A few other conditions can cause hypogammaglobulinemia. Some are passed down through families and start at birth (congenital). These are called primary immune deficiencies.

They include:

  • ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T)
  • autosomal recessive agammaglobulinemia (ARA)
  • common variable immunodeficiency (CVID)
  • hyper-IgM syndromes
  • IgG subclass deficiency
  • isolated non-IgG immunoglobulin deficiencies
  • severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID)
  • specific antibody deficiency (SAD)
  • Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome
  • x-linked agammaglobulinemia

More often, hypogammaglobulinemia develops as a result of another condition, called secondary or acquired immune deficiencies. These include:

Certain medications can also cause hypogammaglobulinemia, including:

  • medicines that suppress the immune system, such as corticosteroids
  • chemotherapy drugs
  • antiseizure medications

Doctors treat bacterial infections with antibiotics. People who get severe or frequent bacterial infections may need to take antibiotics for several months at a time to prevent them.

If your hypogammaglobulinemia is severe, you may get immune globulin replacement therapy to replace what your body isn’t making. You get this treatment through an IV. The immune globulin comes from the blood plasma of healthy donors.

Some people only need a single injection of immune globulin replacement. Others will need to stay on this treatment for a year or more. Your doctor will do blood tests every few months to check your levels until they get up to normal.

Complications depend on what caused hypogammaglobulinemia, and what types of infections are involved. They can include:

  • autoimmune disorders such as Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis
  • damage to the heart, lungs, nervous system, or digestive tract
  • increased risk for cancer
  • repeated infections
  • slowed growth in children

Getting treated for infections and taking immune globulin therapy can reduce the risk of these complications.

The life expectancy for this condition depends on how severe it is, and how it’s treated. People who get many severe infections will have a worse outlook than those who don’t get as many infections.

Babies with THI usually grow out of it. The infections will often stop by their first birthday. Immunoglobulin usually reaches normal levels by age four.

Catching this condition early and getting on antibiotics or immune globulin treatment can limit infections, prevent complications, and improve your life expectancy.

Diabetes tipo 1 y tipo 2: Diferencias, síntomas y más

01-06-2021 · La diabetes tipo 2 es mucho más común que el tipo 1. Según el Informe Nacional de Estadísticas de la Diabetes de 2020 de los Centros para el Control y la Prevención de …


Existen dos tipos principales de diabetes: tipo 1 y tipo 2.

Ambos tipos de diabetes son enfermedades crónicas que afectan la forma en la que tu cuerpo regula el azúcar en la sangre, o la glucosa. La glucosa es el combustible que alimenta las células de tu cuerpo, pero para entrar a tus células, necesita una llave. La insulina es esa llave.

Las personas con diabetes tipo 1 no producen insulina. Es como si no tuvieras la llave.

Las personas con diabetes tipo 2 no responden a la insulina tan bien como debieran y posteriormente con la enfermedad, con frecuencia no producen suficiente insulina. Eso es como que tuvieras una llave que no sirve.

Ambos tipos de diabetes pueden causar niveles de azúcar en la sangre crónicamente altos. Eso aumenta el riesgo de complicaciones de la diabetes.

Si no se controlan, la diabetes tipo 1 y tipo 2 pueden causar síntomas como:

  • micción frecuente
  • sentir mucha sed y beber mucho
  • sentir mucha hambre
  • sentirse muy fatigado
  • tener visión borrosa
  • tener cortes o llagas que no sanan adecuadamente

Las personas con diabetes tipo 1 y tipo 2 también pueden experimentar irritabilidad, cambios de humor y pérdida de peso involuntaria.

Las personas con diabetes tipo 1 y tipo 2 también pueden tener entumecimiento y hormigueo en sus manos o pies. El buen control de la glucosa reduce significativamente el riesgo de desarrollar entumecimiento y hormigueo en algunas personas con diabetes tipo 1, según la Sociedad de Diabetes de Estados Unidos (ADA, por sus siglas en inglés).

Aunque muchos de los síntomas de la diabetes tipo 1 y tipo 2 son similares, se presentan de formas muy diferentes.

Muchas personas con diabetes tipo 2 no tendrán síntomas por muchos años y sus síntomas con frecuencia se desarrollan lentamente con el transcurso del tiempo. Algunas personas con diabetes tipo 2 no tienen ningún síntoma y no descubren que tienen la afección hasta que surgen complicaciones.

Los síntomas de la diabetes tipo 1 se desarrollan rápidamente, usualmente en el transcurso de varias semanas. Alguna vez conocida como la diabetes juvenil, este tipo usualmente se desarrolla en la infancia o adolescencia. Sin embargo, es posible desarrollar diabetes tipo 1 posteriormente en la vida.

La diabetes tipo 1 y tipo 2 puede tener nombres similares, pero son enfermedades diferentes con causas únicas.

Causas de diabetes tipo 1

El sistema inmunitario del cuerpo es responsable de contrarrestar a los invasores extraños, como los virus y las bacterias dañinas.

En las personas con diabetes tipo 1, el sistema inmunitario confunde las células sanas del propio cuerpo con invasores extraños. El sistema inmunitario ataca y destruye las células beta que producen insulina en el páncreas. Después de que estas células beta son destruidas, el cuerpo no puede producir insulina.

Los investigadores no saben por qué el sistema inmunitario algunas veces ataca las propias células del cuerpo. Puede ser que se relacione con factores genéticos y ambientales, como exposición a virus. La investigación sobre las enfermedades autoinmunes está en curso.

Causas de diabetes tipo 2

Las personas con diabetes tipo 2 tienen resistencia a la insulina. El cuerpo todavía produce insulina, pero no puede usarla efectivamente.

Los investigadores no están seguros por qué algunas personas se vuelven resistentes a la insulina y otras no, sin embargo, pueden contribuir varios factores del estilo de vida, incluyendo ser inactivo y tener exceso de peso.

Otros factores genéticos y ambientales también pueden jugar un papel. Cuando desarrollas diabetes tipo 2, tu páncreas intentará compensar produciendo más insulina. Debido a que tu cuerpo no puede usar la insulina de manera efectiva, la glucosa se acumulará en tu torrente sanguíneo.

La diabetes tipo 2 es mucho más común que el tipo 1.

Según el Informe Nacional de Estadísticas de la Diabetes de 2020 de los Centros para el Control y la Prevención de Enfermedades de Estados Unidos (CDC, por sus siglas en inglés), 34.2 millones de personas en Estados Unidos vivían con diabetes diagnosticada o no diagnosticada en 2018. Eso es un poco más de 1 de cada 10 personas. Entre 90 a 95 por ciento de las personas con diabetes tienen tipo 2.

El porcentaje de personas con diabetes aumenta con la edad.

Aproximadamente el 10.5 por ciento de la población general tiene diabetes. Entre las personas de 65 años y más, el índice alcanza el 26.8 por ciento. Solo 25 de cada 10,000 estadounidenses menores de 20 años han sido diagnosticados con diabetes en 2018.

Los hombres y las mujeres desarrollan diabetes casi con los mismos índices. Sin embargo, las tasas de prevalencia son más altas entre ciertos grupos raciales y etnias.

Los nativos americanos, los nativos de Alaska y los méxico americanos tienen la prevalencia más alta de diabetes entre hombres y mujeres. En general, las poblaciones hispanas y negras tienen mayores tasas de diabetes que los blancos no hispanos o que los asiáticos.

Las tasas de prevalencia son mayores para los hispanoamericanos de origen mexicano o puertorriqueño que aquellos de Centroamérica, Sudamérica o Cuba.

Entre los americanos asiáticos, las personas con ascendencia india asiática tienen mayores tasas de diabetes que las personas con ascendencia china o filipina.

Factores de riesgo para la diabetes tipo 1 incluyen:

  • Antecedentes familiares: Las personas con un padre o hermano con diabetes tipo 1 tienen mayor riesgo de desarrollarla.
  • Edad: La diabetes tipo 1 puede aparecer a cualquier edad, pero es más común entre los niños y adolescentes.
  • Geografía: La prevalencia de la diabetes tipo 1 aumenta mientras más lejos estés de la línea del Ecuador.
  • Genética: La presencia de ciertos genes indica un riesgo mayor de desarrollar diabetes tipo 1.

Estás en riesgo de desarrollar diabetes tipo 2 si:

  • tienes prediabetes, o niveles de azúcar en sangre levemente elevados
  • tienes exceso de peso u obesidad
  • tienes mucha grasa abdominal
  • eres físicamente inactivo
  • tienes más de 45 años
  • nunca has tenido diabetes gestacional, que es diabetes durante el embarazo
  • has dado a luz a un bebé que pesó más de 9 libras
  • eres negro, hispano, indio americano o nativo de Alaska
  • tienes un familiar cercano con diabetes tipo 2
  • tienes el síndrome de ovario poliquístico (SOP)

La primera prueba que se usa para diagnosticar tanto la diabetes tipo 1 como la tipo 2 es conocida como la prueba A1C o de hemoglobina glucosilada.

Esta prueba de sangre determina tu nivel promedio de azúcar en sangre en los últimos 2 a 3 meses. Tu médico puede extraer sangre o pincharte el dedo levemente.

Mientras más altos hayan sido tus niveles de azúcar en sangre durante los últimos meses, más alto será tu nivel de A1C. Los resultados de la prueba se expresan como un porcentaje. Un nivel de A1C de 6.5 por ciento o más indica diabetes.

La prueba A1C no es precisa para las personas con anemia falciforme o traza de anemia falciforme. Si tienes esta afección o traza, entonces tu médico tendrá que usar una prueba distinta.

No hay cura para la diabetes tipo 1. Las personas con diabetes tipo 1 no producen insulina, así que se la deben inyectar regularmente en el cuerpo.

Algunas personas se inyectan en el tejido blando como el estómago, el brazo, los glúteos, varias veces al día. Otras personas usan bombas de insulina. Las bombas de insulina proveen una cantidad regular de insulina al cuerpo a través de un pequeño tubo.

La prueba de azúcar en sangre es una parte esencial para controlar la diabetes tipo 1, debido a que los niveles pueden subir y bajar rápidamente.

La diabetes tipo 2 puede controlarse y hasta revertirse simplemente con dieta y ejercicio, pero muchas personas necesitan apoyo adicional. Si los cambios en el estilo de vida no son suficientes, tu médico puede recetar medicamentos para ayudar a tu cuerpo a usar la insulina de manera más efectiva.

Controlar tu azúcar en sangre también es una parte esencial del control de la diabetes tipo 2. Es la única manera de saber si alcanzas tus niveles objetivo.

Tu médico puede recomendarte pruebas de azúcar en sangre ocasionalmente o con más frecuencia. Si tus niveles de azúcar en sangre son altos, tu médico puede recomendarte inyecciones de insulina.

El control nutricional es una parte importante de la vida para las personas con diabetes.

Si tienes diabetes tipo 1, trabaja con tu médico para identificar cuánta insulina puedes necesitar inyectarte después de consumir cierto tipo de alimentos.

Por ejemplo, los carbohidratos pueden causar que los niveles de azúcar en sangre aumenten rápidamente en las personas con diabetes tipo 1. Necesitarás contrarrestarlo recibiendo insulina, pero necesitarás saber cuánta insulina recibir.

Las personas con diabetes tipo 2 necesitan enfocarse en una alimentación sana. La pérdida de peso con frecuencia es parte de los planes de tratamiento de la diabetes tipo 2, así que tu médico puede recomendarte un plan de alimentación bajo en calorías. Esto podría significar reducir tu consumo de grasas animales y comida chatarra.

La diabetes tipo 1 no se puede prevenir.

Sin embargo, es posible bajar tu riesgo de desarrollar diabetes tipo 2 a través de estos cambios en el estilo de vida:

  • mantener un peso moderado
  • trabajar con tu médico para desarrollar un plan sano para perder peso, si tienes sobrepeso
  • aumentar tus niveles de actividad
  • comer una dieta balanceada y reducir tu ingesta de alimentos dulces o alimentos extremadamente procesados

Incluso si no puedes evitar la diabetes en sí, controlarla cuidadosamente puede regresar tus niveles de azúcar en sangre a la normalidad y evitar que se desarrollen complicaciones graves.

Lee el artículo en inglés.

Traducción al español por HolaDoctor.

Edición en español por Stella Miranda el 1 de junio de 2021.

Versión original actualizada el 28 de octubre de 2020.

Última revisión médica realizada el 27 de octubre de 2020.

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